Electrophysiological monitoring of inhibition in mammalian species, from rodents to humans.
Adrien Peyrache and Alain Destexhe

Neurobiology of Disease 130: 104500, 2019.

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GABAergic interneurons constitute a highly diverse family of neurons that play a critical role in cortical functions. Due to their prominent role in cortical network dynamics, genetic, developmental, or other dysfunctions in GABAergic neurons have been linked to neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Thus it is crucial to investigate the interaction of these various neurons and to develop methods to specifically and directly monitor inhibitory activity in vivo. While research in small mammals has benefited from a wealth of recent technological development, bridging the gap to large mammals and humans remains a challenge. This is of particular interest since single neuron monitoring with intracranial electrodes in epileptic patients is developing quickly, opening new avenues for understanding the role of different cell types in epilepsy. Here we review currently available techniques that monitor inhibitory activity in the brain and the respective validations in rodents. Finally, we discuss the future developments of these techniques and how knowledge from animal research can be translated to the study of neuronal circuit dynamics in the human brain.